BooksPeriodical LiteratureReportsCommentary, Thematic Debates, & Guides
Resolutions, Mandates & Directives of Key International BodiesInternational TreatiesCase LawRecent Statements by the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially in Women and Children
U.N. Organizations/BodiesNon-U.N. Organizations
Expert InterviewsVideosRSS Feeds
This is the "Introduction & Background" page of the "International Anti-Trafficking Enforcement Policy" guide.
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International Anti-Trafficking Enforcement Policy  

Last Updated: May 4, 2012 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Introduction & Background Print Page

Introduction & Background

            With the advent of globalization, the world has encountered many new challenges not the least of which is human trafficking, identified as the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world and second only to drug trafficking as illegally most lucrative. According to Patrick Bester of the International Labour Office, human trafficking raked in an estimated $31.6 billion in 2005 and by 2008 there were 2.5 million people from 127 different countries being trafficked into 137 countries around the world. Hence the consequences of this massive industry are widespread and caused by endemic disparities in wealth and the systemic corruption that pervades every society from the first to the third world. It has been argued by David Feingold in his book Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts that many of the statistics of human trafficking are perceived as grossly inflated to aid advocacy of anti-trafficking NGOs and the anti-trafficking policies of governments but that this is due to the definition of trafficking being a process (not a singly defined act) and the fact that it is a dynamic phenomenon with constantly shifting patterns relating to economic circumstances. One thing is for sure, however, and that is the world has come a long way in combatting trafficking with the adoption of the Trafficking  Protocol in Palermo, Italy, in 2003 and the emerging networks of anti-trafficking organizations that have created and continue to shape anti-trafficking enforcement policy at the international level.


Using This Guide

            This guide has several tabs in which researchers will find the materials and tools necessary to grasp what the current state of anti-trafficking enforcement police is today around the world. Each main tab is linked to a relevant site giving information on the type of source in that section or showing how to cite to that type of source. Under the first tab “Primary Sources”, researchers will find key international treaties, resolutions and mandates, directives and a case law database that relate to anti-trafficking as well as the human right to be free from enslavement. The resources included under the “Secondary Sources” tab encompass books and legal periodical literature in addition to manuals, commentary, thematic debates, and reports from international organizations that highlight what is going on in relation to enforcement policy and the methods of combating trafficking in various regions of the world. The “International Organizations” tab leads to both United Nations entities and non-United Nations organizations that either are exclusively devoted to the fight to end end human trafficking or have a specialized arm devoted to this aim. Also included in the webguide is a section entitled "Media" with expert interviews, videos, and RSS feeds relevant to human trafficking news. Additionally, a Google search bar lists the most relevant search results pertaining to "anti-trafficking" and "enforcement policy".  One should note that the materials in these sections are somewhat interlinked. For example, under the "Primary Sources" tab in the "Resolutions, Mandates, & Directives of Key International Bodies" sub-tab there is a material entitled "Directive 2011/36/EU". There is a piece of joint commentary from various UN entities responding to this EU Directive under the "Secondary Sources" tab and "Commentary, Thematic Debates & Guides" sub-tab.

            An attempt has been made to point the researcher to the most useful sources, as well as to provide links to either full-text PDF versions of the sources or a website that leads to the full-text source.  Moreover, Bluebook citations have been included when appropriate, but, as with citations from any source, should be spot-checked for accuracy during the research process. Please enjoy this guide and good luck with your researching efforts! 


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Laura A. Gretz

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Brooklyn Law School, J.D. 2011 (expected)

Trinity College, B.A., 2006


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